empire colonial portugais

[200], In the wake of World War II, decolonization movements began to gain momentum in the empires of the European powers. Dans les années 1960, la dictature de Salazar tente vainement de les préserver malgré des guerres d'indépendance (guerre d'indépendance de l'Angola, guerre d'indépendance du Mozambique), qui s'achèvent en 1975, après la Révolution des œillets. En Afrique de l'Est, l'Estado da India, qui a reculé au Nord de la côte swahilie, sécurise définitivement ses positions du Mozambique. Le Brésil colonial inaugure une nouvelle ère de l'or, tandis que le roi José Ier met en place de profondes réformes depuis Lisbonne. [15] In 1443 Infante Dom Pedro, Henry's brother and by then regent of the Kingdom, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. [16] A major advance that accelerated this project was the introduction of the caravel in the mid-15th century, a ship that could be sailed closer to the wind than any other in operation in Europe at the time. With the Portuguese already established in nearby Ternate, conflict was inevitable, leading to nearly a decade of skirmishes. Le Timor oriental déclare également son indépendance en 1975, mais est aussitôt envahi et annexé par l'Indonésie, il n'en deviendra pleinement indépendant qu'en 2002. In 1503, an expedition under the command of Gonçalo Coelho reported French raids on the Brazilian coasts,[112] and explorer Binot Paulmier de Gonneville traded for brazilwood after making contact in southern Brazil a year later. [citation needed] Around 1521, João Álvares Fagundes was granted donatary rights to the inner islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and also created a settlement on Cape Breton Island to serve as a base for cod fishing. [64] In 1517, João da Silveira commanded a fleet to Chittagong,[65] and by 1528, the Portuguese had established a settlement in Chittagong. [142], The Tordesillas boundary between Spanish and Portuguese control in South America was then increasingly ignored by the Portuguese, who pressed beyond it into the heart of Brazil,[140] allowing them to expand the territory to the west. [103] By 1570 the Portuguese bought part of a Japanese port where they founded a small part of the city of Nagasaki,[104] and it became the major trading port in Japan in the triangular trade with China and Europe. En 1483, Diogo Cao atteint l'embouchure du Congo. 1415-1999. La première factorerie d'outre-mer est fondée en 1445 sur l'île d'Arguin près de la côte de Mauritanie. By 1739, at the apex of the mining boom, the population of Minas Gerais was somewhere between 200,000 and 250,000. The Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Bassein. [77] The Chinese sent a squadron of junks against Portuguese caravels that succeeded in driving the Portuguese away and reclaiming Tamao. Les Portugais cherchent à détourner les routes des caravanes d'Afrique du nord à leur profit. Almeida refused to turn over power and soon placed Albuquerque under house arrest, where he remained until 1509. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 19 décembre 2020 à 20:43. Des contacts commerciaux sont établis avec les populations côtières africaines, pour acquérir des ressources précieuses (esclaves, or ou ivoire), et des comptoirs sont alors établis, dont le plus important est celui d'Elmina (actuel Ghana), fondé en 1482. Son successeur, Afonso de Albuquerque, s'attache à faire de l'océan Indien occidental un mare clausum portugais, en s'emparant de trois points qui commandent le passage des marchandises : Ormuz (1507 et 1517) à l'entrée du golfe Persique, Goa (1510), capitale de l'« Estado da India », pour la côte de Malabar, Cochin, et Malacca (1511) qui commande l'entrée du détroit du même nom[3]. Infobase Publishing, 2009. p. 800, Hong Kong & Macau 14 By Andrew Stone, Piera Chen, Chung Wah Chow Lonely Planet, 2010. pp. Simultaneously Pêro da Covilhã, traveling secretly overland, had reached Ethiopia, suggesting that a sea route to the Indies would soon be forthcoming. Son indépendance continua néanmoins à être menacée par le royaume de Castille voisin jusqu'à la bataille d'Aljubarrota, en 1385, et la signature du traité qui s'ensuivit. [153][154], The Dutch took their fight overseas, attacking Spanish and Portuguese colonies and beginning the Dutch–Portuguese War, which would last for over sixty years (1602–1663). En plus des neuf membres permanents, la CPLP regroupe six observateurs : la Géorgie, le Japon, la République de Maurice, la Namibie, le Sénégal et la Turquie[réf. Le personnage-clé de cette période est le prince Henri le Navigateur, gouverneur de l'Ordre du Christ (héritier portugais de l'Ordre du Temple), ayant participé à la prise de Ceuta. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. [158] In Ethiopia and Japan in the 1630s, the ousting of missionaries by local leaders severed influence in the respective regions. Avec cette lourde défaite, le Portugal perd « sa noblesse, son armée, son indépendance et sa position mondiale[4] ». Through the beginning of 1918, Portugal continued to fight along the Allied front against Germany, including participation in the infamous Battle of La Lys. Officiellement, on lui a longtemps préféré celui d’« Outre-mer portugais » (Ultramar português) avant d'adopter temporairement le terme d’« Empire colonial portugais » entre 1930 et 1951. They established a trading center at Tangasseri, Quilon (Coulão, Kollam) city in (1503) in 1502, which became the centre of trade in pepper,[41] and after founding manufactories at Cochin (Cochim, Kochi) and Cannanore (Canonor, Kannur), built a factory at Quilon in 1503. L'empire colonial portugais désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XV e siècle et le XX e siècle. [110] Subsequently, in 1500–1501 and 1502, the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real explored what is today the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Greenland, claiming these lands for Portugal. [99] In response, the Kongo allowed the colonization of Luanda Island; Luanda was established by Paulo Dias de Novais in 1576 and soon became a slave port. Slave labor increased as well as involvement from the textile economy. Diversion and smuggling were frequent, along with altercations between Paulistas (residents of São Paulo) and Emboabas (immigrants from Portugal and other regions in Brazil), so a whole set of bureaucratic controls began in 1710 with the captaincy of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. [203], The rise of Soviet influence among the Movimento das Forças Armadas's military (MFA) and working class, and the cost and unpopularity of the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974), in which Portugal resisted to the emerging nationalist guerrilla movements in some of its African territories, eventually led to the collapse of the Estado Novo regime in 1974. [33], The completion of these negotiations with Spain is one of several reasons proposed by historians for why it took nine years for the Portuguese to follow up on Dias's voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, though it has also been speculated that other voyages were in fact taking place in secret during this time. The British Ultimatum of 1890 was imposed upon King Carlos I of Portugal and the Pink Map came to an end. "Overseas Council (Portugal)" in, Francis A. Dutra, "Salvador Correia de Sá e Benavides" in, History of the Konkan by Alexander Kyd Nairne pp. Most were brought to the Portuguese capital Lisbon, where it is estimated black Africans came to constitute 10 percent of the population. In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey (now Benin) annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. Indigenous freedom decreased in contrast to its period under the Jesuits, and the response to intermarriage was lukewarm at best. In 1481, the recently crowned João II decided to build São Jorge da Mina in order to ensure the protection of this trade, which was held again as a royal monopoly. [205], According to one historian, Portuguese rulers were unwilling to meet the demands of their colonial subjects (unlike other European powers) in part because Portuguese elites believed that "Portugal lacked the means to conduct a successful "exit strategy" (akin to the "neocolonial" approach followed by the British, the French, or the Belgians)" and in part due to the lack of "a free and open debate [in Salazar's dictatorial state] on the costs of upholding an empire against the anti-colonial consensus that had prevailed in the United Nations since the early 1960s". [187][188], At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. However, they soon began to shield Chinese junks and a cautious trade began. The Portuguese Empire (Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. [21] By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. [170] In spite of gold galvanizing global trade, the plantation industry became the leading export for Brazil during this period; sugar constituted at 50% of the exports (with gold at 46%) in 1760. Au moment de l'expulsion des Habsbourg d'Espagne et de l'accession au trône de Jean IV de Portugal en 1640, le Portugal possède encore en Inde les trois territoires de Goa, Diu et Daman, la richissime « Province du Nord » de l'État portugais des Indes[5], et les établissements vice-royaux du Coromandel (São Tomé de Meliapore, Pippli, Hugli, etc. [114], The increase in brazilwood smuggling from the French led João III to press an effort to establish effective occupation of the territory. Comme les Portugais, ils s'installent sur l'île pour environ cent cinquante ans. 16th century Portuguese illustration from the Códice Casanatense, depicting a Portuguese nobleman with his retinue in India, By the end of 1509, Albuquerque became viceroy of the Portuguese India. On situe son origine en 962 au couronnement d'Otton 1er et sa fin en 1806 lors du renoncement par François II à son titre d'empereur. [32] However, as it was not possible at the time to correctly measure longitude, the exact boundary was disputed by the two countries until 1777. [111], Within a few years after Cabral arrived from Brazil, competition came along from France. [150] This foretaste of the riches of the East galvanized English interest in the region. [61] Learning of Siamese ambitions over Malacca, Albuquerque immediately sent Duarte Fernandes on a diplomatic mission to the Kingdom of Siam (modern Thailand), where he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations and trade between both kingdoms. Following the granting of independence to India by Britain in 1947, and the decision by France to allow its enclaves in India to be incorporated into the newly independent nation, pressure was placed on Portugal to do the same. It also regulated the trade of Gujarati ships departing to the Red Sea and passing through Bassein to pay duties and allow the horse trade. [4] After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411. Yosaburō Takekoshi, "The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan", The Portuguese period in East Africa – Page 112, The History of the Portuguese, During the Reign of Emmanuel p. 287, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPickettPickett2011 (, Francis A. Dutra. Midway in the year, Portugal suffered its first World War I casualty. [6], In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades. Il s'étendait sur un territoire représentant aujourd'hui soixante États souverains différents. [11] At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast. Empire colonial portugais Histoire du Portugal Liste des souverains wisigoths Liste des rois de Portugal Lusitanie Comté de Portugal Dynastie de Bourgogne Crise portugaise de 1383-1385 Dynastie d'Aviz Dynastie de Bragance Empire colonial portugais.. Auteur Daniel Feliciano. [84] After Mughal ruler Humayun had success against Bahadur, the latter signed another treaty with the Portuguese to confirm the provisions and allowed the fort to be built in Diu. Unrest spread from Angola to Guinea, which rebelled in 1963, and Mozambique in 1964. [55] He encouraged Portuguese settlers to marry local women, built a church in honor of St. Catherine (as it was recaptured on her feast day), and attempted to build rapport with the Hindus by protecting their temples and reducing their tax requirements. The expedition of García Jofre de Loaísa reached the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. Il existe un autre héritage lié à la présence portugaise dans les anciennes colonies comme le Brésil, l'Angola, le Mozambique, le Cap-Vert, Macao, la Guinée-Bissau et d'autres. en Amérique. [138], In 1580, King Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal after a crisis of succession brought about by King Sebastian of Portugal's death during a disastrous Portuguese attack on Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578. Le choix de Ceuta est stratégique : la place, située au nord de l'Afrique, est un comptoir portuaire où aboutissent les caravanes du Sahara transportant de l'or, des épices et des esclaves. La fin de l’empire colonial portugais : témoignages sur un dénouement tardif et tourmenté, par Eric et Jeanne Makédonsky. Empire colonial portugais; Empire colonial belge; Empire colonial allemand; Empire colonial britannique Espaces coloniaux. [139] At Tomar, Philip promised to keep the empires legally distinct, leaving the administration of the Portuguese Empire to Portuguese nationals, with a Viceroy of Portugal in Lisbon seeing to his interests. [209] Under the transfer agreement, Macau is to be governed under a one country, two systems policy, in which it will retain a high degree of autonomy and maintain its capitalist way of life for at least 50 years after the handover in 2049. Although he failed to spike the gold revenue, two short-term companies he established for the plantation economy drove a significant increase in production of cotton, rice, cacao, tobacco, sugar. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. L'action d'Alphonse V dans le cadre des Grandes Découvertes peut être divisée en 4 phases. La politique d'Alphonse V n'obéissait pas à un plan rigoureux de recherche d'une région spécifique, mais il est révélateur d'une volonté de progression systématique et cherchait à empêcher que les puissances rivales interviennent dans les régions découvertes. Portugal enjoyed a virtual monopoly on the African seaborne slave trade for over a century, importing around 800 slaves annually. Impoverished social conditions and a high cost of living were among reasons of the revolt. [140] Philip even had the capital moved to Lisbon for a two-year period (1581–83) due to it being the most important city in the Iberian peninsula. [131] Subsequently, the French would resettle in Portuguese territory at Guanabara Bay, which would be called France Antarctique. West. [132] While a Portuguese ambassador was sent to Paris to report the French intrusion, Joao III appointed Mem de Sá as new Brazilian governor general, and Sá left for Brazil in 1557. Entre 1505 et 1511, Francisco de Almeida, le premier vice-roi des Indes, fondateur de l'empire colonial portugais en Asie, établit une série de comptoirs fortifiés et impose ainsi la présence portugaise dans les circuits commerciaux de l'océan Indien, jusqu’alors dominés par les Musulmans[pas clair]. [169][170] The crown also restricted the diamond mining within its jurisdiction and to private contractors. [91] The fear of Turkish advances within the Portuguese and Ethiopian sectors also played a role in their alliance. Several attempts to establish settlements in Newfoundland over the next half-century also failed. [198] As autumn approached, Germany found success in both Portuguese Africa and against Portuguese vessels, sinking multiple ships. Celle-ci s'empare rapidement Ambon en 1605, qui devient son siège. Coté africain, le bilan est encore plus considérable : 100 000 morts, majoritairement civils. Par la suite, les possessions africaines (Angola, Mozambique, Guinée-Bissau) sont étendues. [122], Of the fifteen original captaincies, only two, Pernambuco and São Vicente, prospered. S'ensuit la Révolution portugaise de 1820, qui est à la fois libérale et conservatrice : libérale, parce qu'elle exige le retour du roi à Lisbonne pour lui imposer une constitution ; conservatrice, parce qu'elle souhaite que le Brésil soit ramené à son ancien statut de colonie, et que les Portugais du Brésil soient privés de leurs droits politiques. Au lendemain de la Seconde guerre mondiale, les colonies sont encore très peu développées : à Sao Tomé-et-Principe aucun lycée n'a encore été ouvert, tandis qu'en Angola et au Mozambique les seules institutions ouvertes en annexes à l'université de Coimbra sont destinées aux fils de colons. Il y eut peu de conquêtes et peu de pertes. [145] The primary threat came from the Dutch, who had been engaged in a struggle for independence against Spain since 1568. With the regular maritime route linking Lisbon to Goa since 1497, the island of Mozambique became a strategic port, and there was built Fort São Sebastião and a hospital. The Equator was crossed by navigators sponsored by Fernão Gomes in 1473 and the Congo River by Diogo Cão in 1482. Formation de l'Empire colonial portugaisest le numéro 115 d'une série de plus de 160 études produites par cette section, dont la plupart furent publiées après la conclusion de la conférence de paix de Paris en 1919. By then, the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline (expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), Portuguese Timor, and enclaves in India (Portuguese India) and China (Portuguese Macau). À l'initiative d'Henri, les marins portugais découvrent les îles Atlantiques et s'y établissent : [117][118] The French attacks did cease to an extent after retaliation led to the Portuguese paying the French to stop attacking Portuguese ships throughout the Atlantic,[114] but the attacks would continue to be a problem well into the 1560s. [218] Also, in southern Italian dialects (e.g., Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian arancia.

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