The ownership of the Auvergne and parts of the Berry were put to an arbitration panel, which reported in favour of Henry; Henry followed up this success by purchasing La Marche from the local count. Although Becket had not been popular while he was alive, in death he was declared a martyr by the local monks.  There were also long-running concerns over the legal treatment of members of the clergy. New Catholic Encyclopedia.  During the disputed papal election of 1159, Henry, like Louis, supported Alexander III over his rival Victor IV. 55–56; Warren (2000), p. 88.  A furious Richard believed that Henry was stalling for time and delaying the departure of the crusade.  As a powerful ruler, Henry was able to provide either valuable patronage or impose devastating harm on his subjects. Social Networks and Archival Context.  In February 1173, Raymond finally gave in and publicly gave homage for Toulouse to Henry and his heirs. Several grievances underpinned the revolt.  Louis had the marriage annulled and Henry married Eleanor eight weeks later on 18 May.  Philip had come to power in 1180 and he rapidly demonstrated that he could be an assertive, calculating and manipulative political leader.  Mainstream Europeans regarded the Irish as relatively barbarous and backward. 189–190; Barlow (1999), pp. Warren (2000), p. 44; Hallam and Everard, p. 160.  In late 1142, Geoffrey decided to send the nine-year-old to Bristol, the centre of Angevin opposition to Stephen in the south-west of England, accompanied by Robert of Gloucester.  He cracked down on crime, seizing the belongings of thieves and fugitives, and travelling justices were dispatched to the north and the Midlands.  Some of these outbursts may have been theatrical and for effect.  Further south, the power of the dukes of Aquitaine over the local church was much less than in the north, and Henry's efforts to extend his influence over local appointments created tensions. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. 43–44. 221–22. Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed considerably over time. Diarmait turned to Henry for assistance in 1167, and the English King agreed to allow Diarmait to recruit mercenaries within his empire. [nb 3] Henry was said to have understood a wide range of languages, including English, but spoke only Latin and French. Furthermore, the whole Becket matter was an increasing international embarrassment to Henry. Hallam and Everard, pp.  Meanwhile, in neighbouring Normandy, Henry delivered justice through the courts run by his officials across the duchy and occasionally these cases made their way to the King himself.  Since travel by sea during the period was dangerous, he would also take full confession before setting sail and use auguries to determine the best time to travel.  The situation worsened in 1164 when Becket fled to France to seek sanctuary with Louis VII. Bibliography: f. pollock and f. w. maitland, History of English Law, 2 v. (2d ed.  The Lion in Winter has proved to be an enduring representation of Henry, being turned into an Academy-Award-winning film and remade in 2003 for television.  The Archbishop refused to be arrested inside the sanctuary of a church, so the knights hacked him to death on 29 December 1170. Aurell, pp.  Aided by the capable Richard FitzNeal, he reformed the currency in 1158, putting his name on English coins for the first time and heavily reducing the number of moneyers licensed to produce coins. 38–39; Chibnall, p. 144. Theobald mobilised his forces along the border with Touraine; Henry responded by attacking Chaumont in Blois in a surprise attack; he successfully took Theobald's castle in a notable siege. At various times, Henry also partially controlled Scotland, Wales and the Duchy of Brittany.  In the 18th century the historian David Hume argued that Henry's reign was pivotal to creating a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. Recueil des actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie, concernant les provinces françaises et les affaires de France by Delisle, Léopold, 1826-1910. 35–36, 38; Carpenter, p. 197.  The two kings now began to compete for control of Berry, a prosperous region of value to both kings. "Henry II, King of England  Despite the size and scope of the crisis, Henry had several advantages, including his control of many powerful royal castles in strategic areas, control of most of the English ports throughout the war, and his continuing popularity within the towns across his empire.  Under this alliance, Henry and Ranulf agreed to attack York, probably with help from the Scots.  In Aquitaine, ducal authority remained very limited, despite increasing significantly during Henry's reign, largely due to Richard's efforts in the late 1170s. r. foreville, L'Église et la royauté en Angleterre sous Henri II (Paris 1943).  One economic effect of these changes was a substantial increase in the amount of money in circulation in England and, post-1180, a significant, long-term increase in both inflation and trade. Hallam and Everard, pp. Henri II est le fils de Geoffroi Plantagenêt comte d'Anjou et de Mathilde fille du roi d'Angleterre Henri Ier Beauclerc.  Major baronial revolts broke out in England, Brittany, Maine, Poitou and Angoulême. , Henry's reign saw significant legal changes, particularly in England and Normandy.  Henry's familiares were particularly important to the operation of his household and government, driving government initiatives and filling the gaps between the official structures and the King. , Henry took this opportunity to intervene personally in Ireland. EN.  Upon news of this, Stephen returned with a large army, and the two sides confronted each other across the River Thames at Wallingford in July. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Encyclopedia.com.  Philip of Flanders declared his neutrality towards Henry, in return for which the King agreed to provide him with regular financial support. [nb 28], The argument between Henry and Becket became both increasingly personal and international in nature. In the late 12th century, the annulment of a marriage for reasons of consanguinity was in effect a divorce process: many marriages among the nobility broke the strict rules of consanguinity, and there was no alternative divorce process.  The empire lacked a coherent structure or central control; instead, it consisted of a loose, flexible network of family connections and lands. [nb 11] They met at Paris and Mont-Saint-Michel in 1158, agreeing to betroth Henry's eldest living son, the Young Henry, to Louis's daughter Margaret.  Young Henry wrote to the pope, complaining about his father's behaviour, and began to acquire allies, including King William of Scotland and the Counts of Boulogne, Flanders and Blois—all of whom were promised lands if Young Henry won. [nb 8] Stephen fell ill with a stomach disorder and died on 25 October 1154, allowing Henry to inherit the throne rather sooner than had been expected.  Although many more of Henry's royal charters have been identified, the task of interpreting these records, the financial information in the pipe rolls and wider economic data from the reign is understood to be more challenging than once thought. King (2010), pp. . The pope authorized Becket to lay an interdict on England, forcing Henry back to negotiations; they finally came to terms in July 1170, and Becket returned to England in early December.  Surprisingly, Henry instead turned to King Stephen, who paid the outstanding wages and thereby allowed Henry to retire gracefully. Philip refused to consider Henry's proposals. Turner (2011), pp.  He had several long-term mistresses, including Annabel de Balliol and Rosamund Clifford.  Different local customs applied within each of Henry's different territories, although common principles underpinned some of these local variations.  Nonetheless, he was prepared to take action to improve the existing procedures, intervening in cases which he felt had been mishandled, and creating legislation to improve both ecclesiastical and civil court processes. Weiler, pp.  On Louis VII's return from the Second Crusade in 1149, he became concerned about the growth of Geoffrey's power and the potential threat to his own possessions, especially if Henry could acquire the English crown. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon Castle in Anjou. In the 1950s Jacques Boussard and John Jolliffe, among others, examined the nature of Henry's "empire"; French scholars in particular analysed the mechanics of how royal power functioned during this period.  Taking his immediate household and a few mercenaries, he left Normandy and landed in England, striking into Wiltshire. See more ideas about catherine of valois, plantagenet, england.  In 1157 pressure from Henry resulted in the young King Malcolm of Scotland returning the lands in the north of England he had taken during the war; Henry promptly began to refortify the northern frontier. 304–205; Hallam and Everard, pp.  Meanwhile, Henry's position in the south of France continued to improve, and by 1173 he had agreed to an alliance with Humbert III, Count of Savoy, which betrothed Henry's son John and Humbert's daughter Alicia.  The King's role in the death of Becket attracted particular criticism.  Henry and Young Henry swore not to take revenge on each other's followers; Young Henry agreed to the transfer of the disputed castles to John, but in exchange the elder Henry agreed to give the younger Henry two castles in Normandy and 15,000 Angevin pounds; Richard and Geoffrey were granted half the revenues from Aquitaine and Brittany respectively. Historians are divided in their use of the terms "Plantagenet" and "Angevin" in regards to Henry II and his sons. [nb 2], Henry was said by chroniclers to be good-looking, red-haired, freckled, with a large head; he had a short, stocky body and was bow-legged from riding.  The Becket controversy also forms the basis for T. S. Eliot's play Murder in the Cathedral, where the tensions between Henry and Becket form the basis both for a discussion of the more superficial events of Becket's death, and Eliot's deeper religious interpretation of the episode. 1–2; Carpenter, p. 192. An arrangement was finally made whereby he did public penance, allowed appeals to Rome, and gave clerics immunity from punishment in secular courts. During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine.  Henry returned to Anjou in either 1143 or 1144, resuming his education under William of Conches, another famous academic. Gillingham (2007a), p. 64; Dunbabin, p. 53. 111–122, 130; Weiler, pp. Henry expanded his empire at Louis's expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties, no lasting agreement was reached.  The conference broke up with war appearing likely, but Philip and Richard launched a surprise attack immediately afterwards during what was conventionally a period of truce.  Henry's relationship with his wife Eleanor was complex: Henry trusted Eleanor to manage England for several years after 1154, and was later content for her to govern Aquitaine; indeed, Eleanor was believed to have influence over Henry during much of their marriage. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. , Henry had a problematic relationship with Louis VII of France throughout the 1150s. Henry forced Richard to give homage, but Young Henry angrily refused to accept it.  Numerous "adulterine", or unauthorised, castles had been built as bases for local lords. His last years were unhappy. [nb 7], Fighting immediately broke out again along the Normandy borders, where Henry of Champagne and Robert captured the town of Neufmarché-sur-Epte. Henry's son William died while still very young. 85–86; Warren, pp. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death.  The long civil war had caused considerable disruption to this system and some figures suggest that royal income fell by 46% between 1129–30 and 1155–56. New Catholic Encyclopedia.  John had spent the Great Revolt travelling alongside his father and most observers now began to regard the prince as Henry's favourite child.  Henry relied on traditional, local courts—such as the shire courts, hundred courts and in particular seignorial courts—to deal with most of these cases, hearing only a few personally. Henry was born in Normandy at Le Mans on 5 March 1133, the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.  He had also been very attached to Thomas Becket, his former tutor, and may have held his father responsible for Becket's death. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Par des actions militaires en Angleterre et avec l'aide du roi d'Écosse, il aide sa mère à retrouver le trône d'Angleterre dont elle a été dépossédé par Étienne de Blois. Publication date 1916 Publisher Paris, Impr. 1183. This collapse had various causes, including long-term changes in economic power, growing cultural differences between England and Normandy but, in particular, the fragile, familial nature of Henry's empire. 124–125. There was an historical debate in the early 20th century, now resolved, as to the precise date that Henry was made duke of Normandy.  Henry's itinerant justices also influenced his contemporaries' legal reforms: Philip Augustus' creation of itinerant bailli, for example, clearly drew on the Henrician model. The design would be altered in later generations to form the Royal Arms of England. Éd. , Henry presented himself as the legitimate heir to Henry I and commenced rebuilding the kingdom in his image. , As the decade progressed, Henry increasingly wanted to resolve the question of the inheritance. 65–66; Everard (2000), p. 17. 4 mai 2016 - Découvrez le tableau "Henri II de VALOIS D'ANGOULEME 1515-1547/1559 Roi de France, Conjoint: Catherine de Médicis" de Henri III sur Pinterest. , In the aftermath of the Toulouse episode, Louis made an attempt to repair relations with Henry through an 1160 peace treaty: this promised Henry the lands and the rights of his grandfather, Henry I; it reaffirmed the betrothal of Young Henry and Margaret and the Vexin deal; and it involved Young Henry giving homage to Louis, a way of reinforcing the young boy's position as heir and Louis's position as king. Henry II d'ANGLETERRE. With â¦  After the death of Becket, he built and endowed various monasteries in France, primarily to improve his popular image.  His family was divided by rivalries and violent hostilities, more so than many other royal families of the day, in particular the relatively cohesive French Capetians.  In 1150, Geoffrey made Henry the Duke of Normandy and Louis responded by putting forward King Stephen's son Eustace as the rightful heir to the duchy and launching a military campaign to remove Henry from the province. Vincent (2007b), pp.  Writing in the 1190s, William of Newburgh commented that "in his own time he was hated by almost everyone"; Henry was widely criticised by his own contemporaries, even within his own court. [nb 16], From time to time, Henry's royal court became a magnum concilium, a great council; these were sometimes used to take major decisions but the term was loosely applied whenever many barons and bishops attended the king. Henry became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Count Geoffrey V, in 1151. , Henry was not an especially pious king by medieval standards.  Richard was enthusiastic and announced his intention to join the crusade, and Henry and Philip announced their similar intent at the start of 1188. Le Mans, March 5, 1133; d. Chinon, July 6, 1189.  Both Henry's mother and wife appear to have had doubts about the appointment, but he continued regardless.  The rebel barons were kept imprisoned for a short time and in some cases fined, then restored to their lands. Kastovsky, p. 247; Vincent (2007b), p. 326.  Henry remained silent and Richard then publicly changed sides at the conference and gave formal homage to Philip in front of the assembled nobles. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. ", In response, four knights made their way secretly to Canterbury, apparently with the intent of confronting and if necessary arresting Becket for breaking his agreement with Henry. 139–140.  This desertion proved the final shock and the King finally collapsed into a fever, regaining consciousness only for a few moments, during which he gave confession. Some of their income came from their private estates, called demesne; other income came from imposing legal fines and arbitrary amercements, and from taxes, which at this time were raised only intermittently. 260–261; Warren (2000), p. 268. Brooke and Brooke, pp. Many earlier historians believed that Henry might have given homage to Louis in 1156.  Fighting continued after Wallingford, but in a rather half-hearted fashion, while the English Church attempted to broker a permanent peace between the two sides. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and his father kept him chronically short of money. Riley-Smith, Jonathan. Heimdal.  The episode proved to be a long-running point of dispute between the two kings and the chronicler William of Newburgh called the ensuing conflict with Toulouse a "forty years' war".  The remaining English rebel strongholds collapsed and in August Henry returned to Normandy. Nightingale, pp. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps.  Not as reserved as his mother, nor as charming as his father, Henry was famous for his energy and drive.
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