④ Route planner Again this is a very small number, and here France stands absolutely apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries (communes in Switzerland or Rhineland-Palatinate may have a smaller surface area, as mentioned above, but they are more populated). In this area as in many others, the work of the National Assembly was, properly speaking, revolutionary: not content with transforming all the chartered cities and towns into communes, the National Assembly also decided to turn all the village parishes into full-status communes. Ce jeu de données est historisé : la date de validité de chaque enregistrement est indiquée dans le champ "Année". Moreover, citizens from one village may be unwilling to have their local services run by an executive located in another village, whom they may consider unaware of or inattentive to their local needs. Au 1 er janvier 2019, la France, y compris Mayotte, compte 34 970 communes.Au 1 er janvier 2017, 66 524 000 habitants vivent en France hors Mayotte. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. Civil marriages were established and started to be performed in the mairie with a ceremony not unlike the traditional one, with the mayor replacing the priest, and the name of the law replacing the name of God ("Au nom de la loi, je vous déclare unis par les liens du mariage." In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (Straßburg in German), Perpignan (Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. On 1 January 2007, there were 2,573 such communities in metropolitan France (including five syndicats d'agglomération nouvelle, a category currently being phased out), made up of 33,327 communes (91.1 percent of all the communes of metropolitan France), and 52.86 million inhabitants, i.e. The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. On 14 July 1789, at the end of the afternoon, following the storming of the Bastille, the provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles, was shot by the crowd on the steps of Paris City Hall. It shows the distinctive nature of the French commune as a geo-political or administrative entity. The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. Vous pouvez obtenir ici le nom de toutes les communes de France, avec leur code INSEE et leur code postal. European France excluding, The commune of the French Republic with the shortest name is the commune of. The two communes in the French Republic with the longest names (38 letters): Three digits (department or collectivity) and two digits (commune) for the, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:42. Paris in fact was one of the very few communes of France whose limits were extended to take into account the expansion of the urbanized area. Additionally some cities had obtained charters during the Middle Ages, either from the king himself, or from local counts or dukes (such as the city of Toulouse chartered by the counts of Toulouse). In recent years it has become increasingly common for communes to band together in intercommunal consortia for the provision of such services as refuse collection and water supply. Often the local syndicate has been turned officially into a community of communes, the new community of communes in fact managing only the services previously managed by the syndicate, contrary to the spirit of the law which has established the new intercommunal structures to carry out a much broader range of activities than that undertaken by the old syndicates. Other examples of retained names in the languages once spoken, or still spoken, on French territory: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) gives numerical indexing codes to various entities in France, notably the communes (which do not coincide with postcodes). The most extreme example of this is Paris, where the urbanized area sprawls over 396 communes. 50 parishes in the case of Paris), and they were usually enclosed by a defensive wall. Au 1er mars 2016 on comptait 35 973 communes, dont 35 861 en métropole. Such cooperation first made its appearance at the end of the 19th century in the form of a law on 22 March 1890, which provided for the establishment of single-purpose intercommunal associations. , In urban areas, the new intercommunal structures are much more a reality, being created by local decision-makers out of genuine belief in the worth of working together. Following that event, a "commune" of Paris was immediately set up to replace the old medieval chartered city of Paris, and a municipal guard was established to protect Paris against any attempt made by King Louis XVI to quell the ongoing revolution. Since then, tremendous changes have affected France, as they have the rest of Europe: the Industrial Revolution, two world wars, and the rural exodus have all depopulated the countryside and increased the size of cities. 8.986 million (=13.9%) reside in 25,453 communes that have a population of less than 1,000. In rural areas, many communes have entered a community of communes only to benefit from government funds. ⑤ Places (by dept. ), Alpes-de-Haute-Provence communes & places. Una ayuda para la genealogía, con acceso a los archivos departamentales y comunales de Francia. Vous trouverez ici la liste de toutes les mairies de France classées par département. Communes vary widely in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. This meant that Paris had less autonomy than the smallest village. In addition, it offered central government finance aimed at encouraging further communes to join together in intercommunal structures. Communes gather and contribute financially to the syndicate, but the syndicate cannot levy its own taxes. Friendly relations with Mexico, Georgia and Bharitya Commune. The municipal councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the commune for a 6-year term. Today, French communes are still very much the same in their general principles as those that were established at the beginning of the Revolution. Quelques villes de France. There have long been calls in France for a massive merger of communes, including by such distinguished voices as the president of the Cour des Comptes (the central auditing administrative body in France). Communes can leave the syndicate at any time. Syndicates can be set up for a particular purpose or to deal with several simultaneous matters. The median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. In 1971 the Marcellin law offered support and money from the government to entice the communes to merge freely with each other, but the law had only a limited effect (only about 1,300 communes agreed to merge with others). Metropolitan France consists of 35,228 communes at the beginning of 2018. Communes de france - Base des codes postaux Ce jeu de données a été publié le 28 mai 2019 et mis à jour le 31 mai 2019 à l'initiative et sous la responsabilité de Mohamed BADAOUI Enrichissement du fichier fourni par la Poste avec les noms de régions, départements et commune en lettre minuscule ainsi que leurs codes INSEE respectifs. Toggle navigation france.comersis.com Nouvelles cartes Le tableau ci-dessous recense les communes comptant 10 habitants ou moins en 2017 .. Les six communes ne comportant aucun habitant sont les villages français détruits durant la Première Guerre mondiale et qui, considérés « morts pour la France », n'ont pas été reconstruits. The municipal council is the legislative and deliberative organ of the commune. The Jacobin revolutionaries were afraid of independent local powers, which they saw as conservative and opposed to the revolution, and so they favored a powerful central state. The new, larger, commune of Paris was set up under the oversight of Emperor Napoléon III in 1859, but after 1859 the limits of Paris rigidified. Except for these tasks, villages were left to handle other issues as they pleased. Toutes les informations pratiques de vos communes partout en France.. Vous cherchez les coordonnées de la mairie de Lhéraule ou alors de la préfecture du département Somme? Communities of communes are given the least money per inhabitant, whereas urban communities are given the most money per inhabitant, thus pushing communes to form more integrated communities where they have fewer powers, which they might otherwise have been loath to do if it were not for government money. From 41,000 communes at the time of the French Revolution, the number decreased to 37,963 in 1921, to 36,569 in 2008 (in metropolitan France). Alsace, with an area of 8,280 km2 (3,200 sq mi), and now part of the Région Grand Est, used to be the smallest of the regions of metropolitan France, and still has no fewer than 904 communes. Today about 90 percent of communes and departments are exactly the same as those designed at the time of the French Revolution more than 200 years ago, with the same limits. Second, the United States, with a territory fourteen times larger than that of the French Republic, and nearly five times its population, had 35,937 incorporated municipalities and townships at the 2002 Census of Governments, fewer than that of the French Republic. So far, however, local conservatism has been strong, and no mandatory merging proposal ever has made it past committee in the French Parliament. This was fewer than the 60,000 parishes that existed before the revolution (in cities and towns, parishes were merged into one single commune; in the countryside, some very small parishes were merged with bigger ones), but 41,000 was still a considerable number, without any comparison in the world at the time, except in the empire of China (but there, only county level and above had any permanent administration). Communes themselves then form part of one of the 96 departments of France, which themselves are part of the 22 regions of metropolitan France. Administration territoriale de la France. Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], . This "mayor" was called provost of the merchants (prévôt des marchands) in Paris and Lyon; maire in Marseille, Bordeaux, Rouen, Orléans, Bayonne and many other cities and towns; mayeur in Lille; premier capitoul in Toulouse; viguier in Montpellier; premier consul in many towns of southern France; prêteur royal in Strasbourg; maître échevin in Metz; maire royal in Nancy; or prévôt in Valenciennes. Structures with fiscal power. , These impressive results however may hide a murkier reality. All of these communes would have equal status, they would all have a mayor at their head, and a municipal council elected by the inhabitants of the commune. The consequence of the change, however, was that tens of thousands of villages which had never had legal "personality" (contrary to the chartered cities) suddenly became legal entities for the first time in their history. It would take Napoleon I to re-establish peace in France, stabilize the new administrative system, and make it generally accepted by the population. Despite enormous differences in population, each of the communes of the French Republic possess a mayor (maire) and a municipal council (conseil municipal), which jointly manage the commune from the municipal hall (mairie), with exactly the same powers no matter the size of the commune. Thus, in Europe, only Switzerland has as high a density of communes as France, and even there an extensive merger movement has started in the last 10 years. French kings often prided themselves on ruling over a "realm of 100,000 steeples". This small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium (11,265 inhabitants), or even Spain (564 inhabitants). The Paris Commune was a popular-led democratic government that ruled Paris from March 18 to May 28, 1871. In Italy, the median area of communes (comuni) is 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi); in Belgium it is 40 km2 (15 sq mi); in Spain it is 35 km2 (14 sq mi); and in Germany, the majority of Länder have communes (Gemeinden) with a median area above 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi). Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC) is a registered 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. The municipal arrondissement is the only administrative unit below the commune in the French Republic, but existing only in these three communes. Before the revolution, France's lowest level of administrative division was the parish (paroisse), and there were up to 60,000 of them in the kingdom. Ainsi, au 1 er janvier 2016 , la France ne comptait plus que 35 868 communes hors Mayotte , ou 35 885 communes en incluant les 17 communes de Mayotte [ 1 ] . As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. Nom de la ville: Code postal: Département: Habitants These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. Consequently, the Alsace region—despite having a land area only one-fifth the size and a total population only one-sixth of that of its neighbor Baden-Württemberg—has almost as many municipalities. , One major often raised problem with intercommunality, is the fact that the intercommunal structures are not subject to directly election by the people, so it is the representatives of each individual commune that sit in the new structure. ③ Explore by region As for Paris, no intercommunal structure has emerged there, the suburbs of Paris fearing the concept of a "Greater Paris," and so disunity still is the rule in the metropolitan area, with the suburbs of Paris creating many different intercommunal structures all without the city. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. In other words, just 8 percent of the French population live in 57 percent of its communes, whilst 92 percent are concentrated in the remaining 43 percent. Contribute to high54/Communes-France-JSON development by creating an account on GitHub. There are about 36,000 communes in total across the country. In many places, the local feudal lord (seigneur) still had a major influence in the village's affairs, collecting taxes from tenant-villagers and ordering them to work the corvée, controlling which fields were to be used and when, and how much of the harvest should be given to him. On 14 December 1789, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) passed a law creating the commune, designed to be the lowest level of administrative division in France, thus endorsing these independently created communes, but also creating communes of its own. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes. The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, 'things held in common'.  This is a considerably higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still largely reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. Countless rural communes that had hundreds of inhabitants at the time of the French Revolution now have only a hundred inhabitants or fewer. Les trois plus importantes communes, Paris, Lyon et Marseille, ont un statut particulier visâ¦ Major Cities Une aide pour la généalogie, avec accès aux archives départementales et communales de France. Un an plus tard : 1 852 panneaux agrémentaient déjà le blog, plus de 30 personnes avaient adhéré à lâidée et contribuaient régulièrement à enrichir ce blog participatif. In the state of Baden-Württemberg, the number of Gemeinden or communities was reduced from 3,378 in 1968 to 1,108 in September 2007. Communes de moins de 10 habitants en 2017. Each commune is governed by a mayor (maire) elected for a 6-year term. Trouvez les coordonnées d'une mairie pour vos démarches administratives, ou alors le plan d'une ville grâce à Communes.com. During the revolution, approximately 41,000 communes were created, on territory corresponding to the limits of modern-day France (the 41,000 figure includes the communes of the departments of Savoie, Haute-Savoie and Alpes-Maritimes which were annexed in 1795, but does not include the departments of modern-day Belgium and Germany west of the Rhine, which were part of France between 1795 and 1815). The Revolutionaries were inspired by Cartesian ideas as well as by the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Liste des 1707 communes de Franche-Comté, avec leur intercommunalités, leur canton, leur bassin de vie, leur code postal, population 2020. Liste des communes de France les plus peuplées. Liste des communes Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee , leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l' Insee issus du recensement 2017 [ Note 1 ] , [ 5 ] . Toulouse Département : Haute-Garonne (Occitanie). Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where UK districts are much larger. We can help you visit any town, village or region of France... ① Ideas & inspiration There are only a few exceptions: Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres (5.75 sq mi). The rights and obligations of communes are governed by the Code général des collectivités territoriales (CGCT) which replaced the Code des communes (except for personnel matters) with the passage of the law of 21 February 1996 for legislation and decree number 2000-318 of 7 April 2000 for regulations.. Collectivités territoriales; Accueil Régions Départements Arrondissements Cantons E.P.C.I. A commune in France is a local 'administrative unit' and can be as small as a few hectares - or as large as Paris! 2 229 621 habitants. 86.7 percent of the population of metropolitan France. Several other cities of France quickly followed suit, and communes arose everywhere, each with their municipal guard. For the government of Paris in 1871, see, France territorial subdivision for municipalities, A request that this article title be changed to, Communes farthest away from the capital city of France, Learn how and when to remove this template message, French villages destroyed in the First World War, Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson, Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur, List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, "Code officiel géographique — Présentation", Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, "Code des collectivités d'outre-mer (COM)", "Le code officiel géographique (COG), avant, pendant et autour (Version 3, volume 1)", "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales", "25 Jahre Gemeindereform Baden-Württemberg; hier: Neuordnung der Gemeinden", "Statistique des communes (fin de l'Ancien Régime et xixe siècle)", Direction générale des collectivités locales (DGCL), Ministry of the Interior, "Répartition des EPCI à fiscalité propre par département au 01/01/2007", Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, Le développement de l'intercommunalité: la révolution discrète, Complete lists of cities and municipalities in France, List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communes_of_France&oldid=997013785, Fourth-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles that may contain original research from January 2015, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, these municipal bodies were not democratic; they were usually in the hands of some rich bourgeois families upon whom, over time, nobility had been conferred, so they can be better labeled as. Communes de France. There is nothing intrinsically different between "town" in English and commune in French. 855 393 habitants. Mergers, however, are not easy to achieve. These cities were made up of several parishes (up to ca. Many rural communes with few residents struggle to maintain and manage basic services such as running water, garbage collection, or properly paved communal roads. (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. In some urban areas like Marseille there exist four distinct intercommunal structures! . French communes were created at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789–1790. Napoleon also abolished the election of the municipal councils, which now were chosen by the prefect, the local representative of the central government. there was no uniform status for these chartered cities, each one having its own status and specific organization. A help for genealogy, with access to departmental and communal archives of France. The communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes; even uninhabited mountains or rain forests are dependent on a commune for their administration. The biggest changes occurred in 1831, when the French Parliament re-established the principle of the election of municipal councils, and in 1837 when French communes were given legal "personality," being now considered legal entities with legal capacity. Very good relations with Socialist Republic of Italy and Union of Britain. This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. Entre 2007 et 2017, la population a augmenté de 0,5 % par an en moyenne, soit 292 400 personnes supplémentaires chaque année. Les communes sont régies par le titre XII de la Constitution de 1958 et la deuxième partie du code général des collectivités territoriales. , Two famous examples of this are Toulouse and Paris. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or municipio in Spain. Suburban communes often team up with the city at the core of their urban area to form a community charged with managing public transport or even administering the collection of local taxes.
Fleurs Locales Et De Saison, World Vision Haiti Recrutement 2020, Vente Manoir Sologne, Serie D Classement, Restaurant Aux Vieux Remparts Provins, Vivre En Finlande Salaire, Bus Balma Toulouse, Be Happy - Dixie D'amelio Parole, Grille Compétences Sciences Et Technologie Cycle 3, Radisson Blu Djerba Prix,